CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND RESILIENCE
IMPACT helps local communities cope with the challenges related to climate change, and supports them in designing adequate adaptation strategies. What we do:
Collaborating with governments and other relevant stakeholders to formulate legislation, plans and policies that are coherent with integrated risk management (IRM) approaches and that contribute to strengthening communities.
Promoting Indigenous Peoples' traditional livelihoods and other adaptive natural resource governance practices.
Building grassroots organizations' resilience and their capacity to provide their communities with effective climate change adaptation initiatives.
In collaboration with Cordaid and Wetlands International, IMPACT has created the Community Resilience Program — a strategic partnership for policy and dialogue, aiming to strengthen the resilience of communities in Laikipia and Samburu.
Through this initiative, IMPACT has focused on supporting policy advocacy, sustainable investment and the implementation of climate-friendly practices.
• COMMUNITY RESOURCE MAPPING AND LIVELIHOOD VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
IMPACT KENYA is partnering with MISERIOR in implementing a project: Strengthening Pastoralists Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change Risks in northern Kenya. The one year initial phase (2021) is planning and will entail community resource mapping and livelihoods assessment in selected wards in Laikipia, Isiolo, Samburu and Marsabit.
Training on participatory community resource mapping and livelihoods vulnerability assessment. The training will enhance the capacity of our team in designing strategic interventions based on community needs.
Testing the Community resource mapping and livelihood vulnerability tools with Leparua community and implementation in Burat ward and Oldonyiro respectively. IMPACT_KENYA is collecting data and information to guide conceptualization of a project to strengthen pastoralist resilience adaptation and climate change risk in Laikipia, Isiolo, Samburu and Marsabit.
• SUB CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT PLANS
Sub-Catchment Management Plan (SCMP) is a tool developed to support protection, conservation and management of water resources and related natural resources within the sub-catchment. This serves to ensure sustainable and balanced water resource utilization for both socio-economic benefits and ecosystem management. A SCMP is developed through a consultative process with key stakeholders to gather consensus on strategy and framework for water resources and catchment conservation, as well as management at the sub-catchment level, ensuring sustainable use of the available water resources.
Mount Ng'iro is a mountain in the north of Kenya overlooking the Suguta valley, part of the Great Rift valley to the west. The mountain is surrounded by a desert, with forested upper slopes. It lies in the territory of the Samburu people and is held sacred by the Samburu community. Some resources found on the mountain are gum arabic tree products and permanent water aquivers or springs.The habitants of the surrounding areas are agro-pastoralists who depend on the water from the mountain to survive.
Mount Ng'iro is a natural water source that produces 4 rivers: Naisudwokwe and Loowuara which flow to Tuum, River Simale which flows to Simale village and Nkoilalei which flows to Parkati.
Lasitu WRUA operational area is within North Ewaso Laggas Management Unit managed by Water Resources Authority, Marsabit sub region. The catchment is situated in the boundary line of Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin Area (ENNBA) and Rift Valley Basin Area (RVBA) at the foot of Mt. Ng'iro. Most of its waters flows down to Suguta valley and then to Lake Lokipi which falls under Kabarnet sub region and Lodwar sub region of Water Resources Authority.
The problems that are being handled to ensure equitability and sustainability of the water resources in the catchment are: water management, poor water works, catchment destruction, water pollution, lack of awareness by community members, water resource conflicts, and water scarcity.
Machini WRUA is located in Ewaso Ngiro North Catchment Area (ENNCA), Middle Ewaso Ngiro sub catchment area of Water Resources Authority (WRA). It covers an area of 278.03 km2 underlying coordinates (centroid) 0.636699N (Latitude) and 37.510699E (Longitudes). The catchment is occupied with two National Reserves (Samburu National Reserve which occupies the biggest area of the catchment and Buffalo Springs National Reserves which occupies very small part of the catchment.
The catchment is limited for any project since most part of it is covered by public land termed as protected land (National Reserve) and therefore any community project that would have helped in improving the Machini peoples livelihood may be shifted to Kiltamany or Archers Post town. The area has limited water pans to avoid wild animals to get out from the reserve which may result to human-wildlife conflicts during dry seasons since most of the peoples settlement are within the national reserve.Also some part of the catchment is used as military training zones, making it difficult in setting up some water resource projects such as water pans.
This Sub-Catchment Management Plan (SCMP) was reviewed through participatory process from 11th to 15th August 2020 by the Machini Water Resources Users Association, IMPACT Trust Kenya, Water Resources Authority (WRA) and stakeholders from county government of Samburu and national government administration. The entire process was funded by Indigenous Movement for Peace Advancement and Conflict Transformation (IMPACT Trust Kenya) and facilitated by Water Resources Authority(WRA).
Some of the major problems affecting the WRUA are:
• Lack of capacity building: less members and no office.
• Low community awareness: no regular training and sensitization about WRUA.
• Catchment degradation: no proper grazing plans, sand harvesting and encroachment on riparian land.
• Water scarcity: limited number of water sources such as boreholes, lack of storage facilities or structures during the rainy season.
• Poor water infrastructure: poor water governance, poor management of water resources and poor quality work from some of the contractors.
• Water pollution: improper waste disposal in the area with no sewer line within the area.
• Water Resources Conflicts: as a result of livestock access to water and National Reserves being low during the dry season.
• Floods: during the rainy season the area is prone to floods due to the lack of flood warning alarm systems.
• Climate change: severe droughts and erratic rainfall pattern with floods due to global warming is being experienced.
The key issues covered during the SCMP review were Flood management, catchment protection, climate change, WRUA delineated boundaries and weaknesses of the WRUA.
WAMBA NKURA WRUA
Wamba Nkura WRUA was formed in June 2016 by the local community with the technical and financial facilitation of Water Resources Authority and the Samburu county government. It was then facilitated by IMPACT to develop a sub catchment management plan (SCMP) in December of 2017.
The area covered by Wamba Nkura WRUA consists of an area of about 527.47 square kilometers within Samburu East sub county. The area consists of settled and grazing areas which are Wamba, Nkura, Nkogoltim, Lengusaka, Lkisin and Nkaron settlement areas.
Wamba Nkura WRUA is in a Semi-arid area and was formed mainly to address the issues that were identified and incorporated in the Constitution.
Promote good management practices to make efficient and sustainable use of the water resources.
Promote water conservation practices to ensure sufficient water reserves that meet the demands of the environment, the wildlife, the livestock and all the downstream communities who rely on the water resources.
Promote controlled and legal water use activities in designated catchment.
Work towards reducing conflict in use of the water resource and participate in solving those that arise.
Promote catchment conservation measures to improve water quantity and quality.
Support members to engage in income generating activities where possible.
Building adaptive capacity of the community to the impacts of climate change and flood management.
Seiya Sub-Catchment Management Plan (SCMP) has been developed to guide the management of Seiya sub-catchment located within the Ewaso Ngiro North Basin, covering about 265.10 square kilometers. The development of the Plan includes the implementation of the provisions of Water Act 2016, Water Resources Management Rules 2007 and WRUA (Water Resources Users Association) Development Cycle 2014 (WDC) all, of which provide for the regulation and management of water resources.
The SCMP validation and adoption process was financed by IMPACT under the Partners for Resilience Program. The main water resources related issues reported in Seiya sub-catchment include: catchment degradation, water shortage, encroachment of riparian land, poor governance and water pollution. The major cause of catchment degradation identified is soil erosion, resulting from deforestation and overgrazing. Water pollution is caused by direct watering at the water sources, encroachment of riparian land and chemical transport from livestock sprays. Encroachment on riparian land is as a result of lack of awareness on need to protect water resources. In addressing the challenges, various solution strategies have been proposed which include capacity building on water resource management, active participation of the WRUA in catchment and water resources protection, promotion of water resources provision, and institutional strengthening.
ASSESSING LAKE OLBOLOSSAT, RUMURUTI AND PESII AS THE MAJOR TRIBUTARY SOURCE TO EWASO NGIRO RIVER
• EWASO NGIRO RIVER
Ewaso Ngiro River is the main source of livelihood across the northern Kenya counties that are dependent on it. Ewaso Ngiro River serves about six counties with over 3 million people depending on it for all their needs, including livestock and agricultural activities at the upper stream of the river. It is fed by nearly 40 streams flowing down from Mount Kenya and the Aberdare Range.
IMPACT Trust Kenya, Isiolo Peace Link, Ewaso Ngiro North Development Authority and Isiolo Conservationists Trust came up with an idea of addressing the challenges and any accruing changes along the Ewaso Ngiro River catchment. The assessment will focus on the headwaters in Nyandarua, particularly the Lake Olbolossat basin and its tributaries inlets. The Manguo swamps, Pesi swamps and Marura swamps in Laikipia County’s Rumuruti area will also be evaluated as part of the assessment.